## Introduction

Evaluation metrics are essential in assessing the performance of computer vision models. These metrics quantify how well a model performs on a given task, allowing professionals to gauge its effectiveness and compare it to other models. In the context of computer vision, where visual perception is key, evaluation metrics are vital for determining the accuracy and reliability of predictions. The confusion matrix serves as a powerful evaluation tool that enables professionals to understand the strengths and weaknesses of their models in a systematic manner.

In this article, we will delve into the intricacies of the confusion matrix, explore its applications in evaluating machine learning models, and discuss how it helps professionals gain valuable insights into model performance.

## What is a Confusion Matrix: understanding True Positives, True Negatives, False Positives, and False Negatives

A confusion matrix provides a tabular representation of the predictions made by a model against the ground truth labels. It’s typically presented as 2x2 matrix, considering binary classification scenarios. There are four key components in this matrix: True Positives, True Negatives, False Positives, and False Negatives.

Here is an example of a binary confusion matrix:

- The columns represent the actual values - the known truth
- The rows correspond to the predicted values of the algorithm

To understand those concepts, imagine a model that predicts whether an image contains a car or not. This a binary case example, since there are only two possible outcomes:

- the image contains a car
- the image does not contain a car

**TP as True Positive**: it occurs when a model correctly predicts a positive outcome.

The model identifies a car in the image and the image contains indeed a car.

**TN as True Negative**: it occurs when a model correctly predicts a negative outcome.

The model does not identify a car in the image and the image does not contain a car.

**FP as False Positive**: it occurs when a model predicts a positive outcome where it should have been negative. The model identifies a car in the image when the image does not contain a car.

**FN as False Negative: **it occurs when a model predicts a negative outcome where it should have been positive. The model does not identify a car when the image does contain a car.

These four outcomes form the basis of the confusion matrix, allowing professionals to analyze the model's performance in detail.

## Accuracy: The Most Basic Evaluation Metric

Accuracy is perhaps the most basic evaluation metric derived directly from the confusion matrix. It measures the overall correctness of a model's predictions by calculating the ratio of correctly classified samples to the total number of samples.

The formula for accuracy is as follows:

While accuracy provides a general overview of a model's performance, it may not be suitable for datasets with imbalanced class distributions. In such cases, where one class significantly outweighs the other, accuracy can be misleading. To gain a deeper understanding, we need to explore additional evaluation metrics that address the trade-offs inherent in classification tasks.

## Precision and Recall: Balancing Trade-offs

Precision and recall are two crucial evaluation metrics that aim to strike a balance between correctly identifying positive samples and minimizing false positives and false negatives.

### Precision

It quantifies the ratio of true positives to the total number of positive predictions and is computed as follows:

Precision reveals the model's ability to make accurate positive predictions. A high precision value indicates that when the model predicts a positive outcome, it is often correct. However, it does not consider false negatives, potentially leading to misleading results in scenarios where the consequences of false negatives are severe.

### Recall

Recall, also known as sensitivity or true positive rate, measures the ratio of true positives to the total number of actual positive samples and is calculated as follows:

Recall focuses on the model's ability to correctly identify positive samples from the entire pool of positive instances. A high recall value indicates that the model can effectively detect positive samples. However, recall does not account for false positives, which can be problematic in situations where false positives are costly.

## F1 Score: The Harmonic Mean of Precision and Recall

The F1 score is a metric that combines precision and recall into a single value, providing a balanced evaluation of a model's performance. It is calculated as the harmonic mean of precision and recall, and its formula is as follows:

The harmonic mean accounts for situations where precision and recall have disparate values. The F1 score reaches its maximum value of 1 when precision and recall are perfectly balanced, indicating that the model achieves both accurate positive predictions and comprehensive detection of positive samples. This metric is especially useful in scenarios where precision and recall need to be equally weighted.

If you want to know more about the F1 score, you can the following article on Picsellia’s blog : Understanding the F1 Score in Machine Learning: The Harmonic Mean of Precision and Recall

## Specificity and Sensitivity: Metrics for Imbalanced Datasets

Imbalanced datasets, where one class significantly outnumbers the other, pose challenges for evaluation metrics such as accuracy, precision, and recall. In such scenarios, specificity and sensitivity offer additional insights into a model's performance.

- Specificity measures the proportion of correctly predicted negatives out of the total number of actual negatives. Its formula is as follows:

- Sensitivity quantifies the proportion of correctly predicted positives out of the total number of actual positives. Its formula is the same as recall:

By considering both true negatives and true positives, specificity, and sensitivity provide a more comprehensive evaluation of a model's effectiveness in imbalanced datasets. These metrics help professionals gauge the model's performance when the classes are heavily skewed, ensuring that the model can accurately identify negative samples while still detecting positive instances.

## Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve and Area Under the Curve (AUC)

The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and its associated metric, the area under the curve (AUC), provide a comprehensive visualization and evaluation of a model's performance across different thresholds.

The ROC curve plots the true positive rate (sensitivity) against the false positive rate (1 - specificity) at various threshold settings. Each point on the curve corresponds to a specific threshold, reflecting the trade-off between true positives and false positives. The ROC curve allows professionals to assess a model's performance across the entire range of possible classification thresholds, providing insights into its discriminatory power.

The AUC summarizes the performance of the ROC curve by calculating the area under the curve. The AUC value ranges from 0 to 1, with a higher value indicating better discrimination. A model with an AUC close to 1 exhibits strong predictive capabilities, effectively distinguishing between positive and negative samples across different thresholds.

## Interpreting the Confusion Matrix: Practical Example in Computer Vision

To illustrate the practical applications of the confusion matrix in computer vision, let's consider the object detection example.

In object detection tasks, the confusion matrix helps analyze the performance of models by identifying common misclassifications and uncovering potential limitations. For instance, if a model frequently misclassifies pedestrians as cyclists, the confusion matrix can reveal this pattern, allowing researchers to investigate and address the underlying causes. By understanding the specific types of errors made by the model, professionals can fine-tune the algorithms or adjust the training process to improve performance and address specific challenges.

Here is a multi-confusion matrix from an experiment made on Picsellia’s platform, which consists in detecting bicycles, bus, cars, motors, people, and trucks in a dataset.

### How does it work on Picsellia?

At the end of the training, you can go to the “Logs” tab to see all the experiment tracking metrics related to the training, it allows users to assert if the experiment is successful or not.

You can choose the metrics to be computed and displayed at the end of the training graphs, images, matrix, and figures.

Get details by checking our users guide at the following link: 8 - Create your project and launch experiments

## Limitations and Challenges of the Confusion Matrix

One significant limitation is its reliance on binary classification. The confusion matrix is designed to evaluate models with two classes, making it less suitable for multi-class classification problems. Extending the confusion matrix to handle multi-class scenarios typically involves modifications, such as the one-vs-all approach or the use of micro- and macro-averaging techniques.

Imbalanced datasets can also pose challenges when interpreting evaluation metrics derived from the confusion matrix. If the classes in the dataset are imbalanced, meaning one class significantly outweighs the other, metrics like accuracy, precision, recall, specificity, and sensitivity may not accurately represent the model's performance. In such cases, other techniques like stratified sampling, resampling methods, or utilizing specialized evaluation metrics such as the area under the precision-recall curve may be necessary.

Additionally, the confusion matrix does not provide insights into the root causes of misclassifications. It serves as a summary of predictions and ground truth labels, leaving professionals to further analyze and investigate the reasons behind false positives and false negatives. Additional techniques, such as error analysis, feature importance analysis, or model interpretability methods, can be employed to gain a deeper understanding of the sources of misclassification.

## Conclusion: Leveraging the Power of the Confusion Matrix in Computer Vision

The confusion matrix is an indispensable tool for professionals in computer vision. By comprehensively understanding its concepts, metrics, and applications, individuals can gain deeper insights into their models' performance, identify areas for improvement, and make informed decisions.

Remember, the confusion matrix is just one aspect of evaluating computer vision models, and it should be used in conjunction with other evaluation techniques and considerations to develop robust and high-performing systems.